Single crystals of synthetic hydroxyapatite have been examined by orientational micro-Raman spectroscopy. The observed Raman bands include the PO43-/OH- internal and external. modes over the spectral range from 180 to 3600 cm(-1). The Raman-active symmetry tensors (A, E(1), and E(2)) of crystal-class C-6 have been assigned to these bands. Intensities of the Raman bands are invariant to the orientation of the a- or b-axis of a single crystal, but depend solely on the c-axis orientation. Changes in the spectral profile thus reflect changes in the c-axis orientation, which, with respect to the known excitation/observation coordinates, can be determined through the angular dependencies of Raman bands due to A and E(2) symmetries. The useful bands are those of the PO43- v(4) vibrational mode, which contains relatively well-defined bands due to E(2) (581 cm(-1)) and A (593 cm(-1)) symmetries. A preliminary Raman study on crystallites near the intact outer surface of human enamel has also been carried out. Strong orientational dependencies similar to those of hydroxyapatite single crystals have been observed among the bands in enamel spectra. This suggests that the crystallites in the region investigated are highly oriented. The results were consistent with an averaged orientation of the crystallite c-axis being perpendicular to the outer surface.
- RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY