Outcome of implants placed to retain craniofacial prostheses - A retrospective cohort study with a follow-up of up to 30 years

Jamie Alberga*, Iris Eggels, Anita Visser, Baucke van Minnen, Anke Korfage, Arjan Vissink, Gerry Raghoebar

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
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OBJECTIVES: To retrospectively assess the treatment outcomes of endosseous implants placed to retain craniofacial prostheses.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with craniofacial defects resulting from congenital disease, trauma, or oncologic treatment had implant retained prostheses placed in the mastoid, orbital, or nasal region and then assessed over a period of up to 30 years. Implant survival rates were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Clinical assessments consisted of scoring skin reactions under the prosthesis and the peri-implant skin reactions. Possible risk factors for implant loss were identified. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using a 10-point VAS-scale.

RESULTS: A total of 525 implants placed in 201 patients were included. The median follow up was 71 months (IQR 28-174 months). Implants placed in the mastoid and nasal region showed the highest overall implant survival rates (10-year implant survival rates of 93.7% and 92.5%, respectively), while the orbital implants had the lowest overall survival rate (84.2%). Radiotherapy was a significant risk factor for implant loss (HR 3.14, p < 0.001). No differences in implant loss were found between pre- and post-operative radiotherapy (p = 0.89). Soft tissue problems were not frequently encountered, and the patients were highly satisfied with their implant-retained prosthesis.

CONCLUSION: Implants used to retain craniofacial prostheses have high survival and patient satisfaction rates and can thus be considered as a predictable treatment option. Radiation is the most important risk factor for implant loss.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)643-654
Number of pages12
JournalClinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research
Issue number5
Early online date14-Jun-2022
Publication statusPublished - Oct-2022


  • congenital
  • craniofacial implants
  • craniofacial prosthesis
  • Extraoral implants
  • implant survival rate
  • patient satisfaction
  • radiotherapy
  • HEAD


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