Overall and disease-specific survival of Hodgkin lymphoma survivors who subsequently developed gastrointestinal cancer

Lisanne S. Rigter, Michael Schaapveld, Cecile P. M. Janus, Augustinus D. G. Krol, Richard W. M. van der Maazen, Judith Roesink, Josee M. Zijlstra, Gustaaf W. van Imhoff, Philip M. P. Poortmans, Max Beijert, Pietcrnella J. Lugtenburg, Otto Visser, Petur Snaebjornsson, Anna M. van Eggermond, Berthe M. P. Aleman, Flora E. van Leeuwen, Monique E. van Leerdam*

*Corresponding author for this work

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    Background Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors have an increased risk of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. This study aims to evaluate whether survival of patients who survived HL and developed GI cancer differs from survival of first primary GI cancer patients. Methods Overall and cause-specific survival of GI cancer patients in a HL survivor cohort (GI-HL, N = 104, including esophageal, gastric, small intestinal, and colorectal cancer) was compared with survival of a first primary GI cancer patient cohort (GI-1, N = 1025, generated by case matching based on tumor site, gender, age, and year of diagnosis). Cox proportional hazards regression was used for survival analyses. Multivariable analyses were adjusted for GI cancer stage, grade of differentiation, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Results GI-HL cancers were diagnosed at a median age of 54 years (interquartile range 45-60). No differences in tumor stage or frequency of surgery were found. GI-HL patients less often received radiotherapy (8% vs 23% in GI-1 patients, P 0.001) and chemotherapy (28% vs 41%, P = 0.01) for their GI tumor. Compared with GI-1 patients, overall and disease-specific survival of GI-HL patients was worse (univariable hazard ratio (HR) 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.65, P = 0.03; and HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.00-1.67, P = 0.049, respectively; multivariable HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.05-1.68, P = 0.02; and HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.03-1.72, P = 0.03, respectively). Conclusions Long-term overall and disease-specific survival of GI cancer in HL survivors is worse compared with first primary GI cancer patients. Differences in tumor stage, grade of differentiation, or treatment could not explain this worse survival.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)190-199
    Number of pages10
    JournalCancer medicine
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - Jan-2019


    • gastrointestinal cancer
    • Hodgkin lymphoma
    • second malignancy
    • survival
    • RISK

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