Background & Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excessive lipid accumulation, inflammation and an imbalanced redox homeostasis. We hypothesized that systemic free thiol levels, as a proxy of systemic oxidative stress, are associated with NAFLD. Methods: Protein-adjusted serum free thiol concentrations were determined in participants from the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) cohort study (n = 5562). Suspected NAFLD was defined by the Fatty Liver Index (FLI ≥ 60) and Hepatic Steatosis Index (HSI > 36). Results: Protein-adjusted serum free thiols were significantly reduced in subjects with FLI ≥ 60 (n = 1651). In multivariable logistic regression analyses, protein-adjusted serum free thiols were associated with NAFLD (FLI ≥ 60) (OR per doubling of concentration: 0.78 [95% CI 0.64-0.96], P =.016) even when adjusted for potential confounding factors, including systolic blood pressure, diabetes, current smoking, use of alcohol and total cholesterol (OR 0.80 [95% CI 0.65-0.99], P =.04). This association lost its significance (OR 0.94 [95% CI 0.73-1.21], P =.65) after additional adjustment for high-sensitive C-reactive protein. Stratified analyses showed significantly differential associations of protein-adjusted serum free thiol concentrations with suspected NAFLD for gender (P <.02), hypertension (P <.001) and hypercholesterolemia (P <.003). Longitudinally, protein-adjusted serum free thiols were significantly associated with the risk of all-cause mortality in subjects with NAFLD (FLI ≥ 60) (HR 0.27 [95% CI 0.17-0.45], P <.001). Conclusion: Protein-adjusted serum free thiol levels are reduced and significantly associated with all-cause mortality in subjects with suspected NAFLD. Quantification of free thiols may be a promising, minimally invasive strategy to improve detection of NAFLD and associated risk of all-cause mortality in the general population.
- fatty liver index FLI
- free thiols
- oxidative stress
- DENSITY-LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL