Parenting Stress in CHARGE Syndrome and the Relationship with Child Characteristics

Josette Wulffaert*, Evert M. Scholte, Yvette M. Dijkxhoorn, Jorieke E. H. Bergman, Conny M. A. van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Ina A. van Berckelaer-Onnes

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


This study investigates the parental perception of stress related to the upbringing of children with CHARGE syndrome and its association with behavioral and physical child characteristics. Parents of 22 children completed the Nijmegen Parenting Stress Index-Short, Developmental Behavior Checklist, and Dutch Vineland Screener 0-12 and reported their child's problems with hearing, vision and ability to speak. Parenting stress was high in 59% of the subjects. Behavioral problems on the depression, autism, self-absorbed and disruptive behavior scales correlated positively with parenting stress. A non-significant trend was found, namely higher stress among the parents of non-speaking children. No associations were found with other child characteristics, i.e. level of adaptive functioning and intellectual disability, auditory and visual problems, deafblindness, gender, and age. Raising a child with CHARGE syndrome is stressful; professional support is therefore essential for this population. More research into other possible influencing characteristics is needed to improve family-oriented interventions. Since CHARGE is a rare syndrome, closer international collaboration is needed, not only to expand the group of study subjects to increase statistical power, but also to harmonize research designs and measurement methods to improve the validity, the reliability, and the generalization of the findings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)301-313
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of developmental and physical disabilities
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug-2009


  • Behavioral phenotype
  • CHARGE syndrome
  • Parenting stress

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