Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV) are autoimmune diseases in which the small vessels are inflamed. Clinical observations suggest a pathogenic role for ANCA. Such a role is supported by in vitro experimental data and animal models, particularly for myeloperoxidase-ANCA. An in vivo pathogenic role of ANCA directed to proteinase 3 has, however, not been fully substantiated. Additionally, the pathogenic role of B cells, T cells, and the alternative pathway of complement in AAV have been elucidated. Insight into these pathogenic pathways involved in AAV has opened and will further open new ways for targeted biologic treatment. In this review the pathogenesis of AAV and potential targets for biologic treatment are discussed.