Post-intensive care unit (ICU) sequelae, including physical and mental health problems, are relatively unexplored. Characteristics commonly used to predict outcome lack prognostic value when it comes to long-term physical recovery. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the incidence of non-recovery in long-stay ICU-patients. In this single-centre study, retrospective data of adults with an ICU stay >48 hours who visited the specialized post-ICU clinic, and completed the Dutch RAND 36-item Short Form questionnaire at 3 and 12 months post-ICU, were retrieved from electronic patient records. In cases where physical functioning scores at 12 months were below reference values, patients were allocated to the physical non-recovery (NR) group. Significantly different baseline and (post-)ICU-characteristics were assessed for correlations with physical recovery at 12 months post-ICU. Of 250 patients, 110 (44%) fulfilled the criteria for the NR-group. Neither the severity of illness, type of admission, nor presence of sepsis did not differ between groups. However, NR-patients had a higher age, were more often female, and had a higher incidence of co-morbidities. Shorter LOS ICU, lower incidence of medical comorbidities, and better physical performance at 3 months were significantly correlated with 1-year physical recovery. Comorbidities and reduced physical functioning at 3 months were identified as independent risk-factors for long-term physical non-recovery. In conclusion, a substantial proportion of long-stay ICU-patients who visited the standard care post-ICU clinic did not fulfil the criteria for full physical recovery at 12 months post-ICU. Commonly used ICU-characteristics, such as severity of illness, do not have sufficient prognostic value when it comes to long-term recovery of health-related quality of life.