OBJECTIVE: The existing literature on mycotic aortic aneurysm is scarce and focuses on treatment. This study evaluates the clinical characteristics, diagnostics, treatment and outcome of patients with a mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm treated in a tertiary referral center.
METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted including all patients with a proven mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm admitted between May 2010 and July 2020. Primary outcome was mortality and secondary outcome included complications such as vascular graft/endograft infection.
RESULTS: Twenty-four patients with a mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm were included. Patients had a mean age of 68 ± 9 years and 20 (83%) were male. Thirteen patients (57%) had positive preoperative blood cultures. Streptococcus pneumoniae was most frequently isolated by blood culturing, pus, and vascular or perivascular tissue cultures (17%). In 19 (83%) patients the mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm was located infrarenally, in three (13%) patients suprarenally, and in one (4%) patient juxtarenally. Median follow-up was 20 (7-42) months. In eight patients (33%) vascular graft and or endograft infection was diagnosed after surgical repair. Ten (42%) patients died during the follow-up period. The main causes of death were vascular graft/endograft infection-related (n=4) and rupture of the mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm (n=3). No patient characteristics could be identified as predictive for mortality.
CONCLUSION: This study shows a large variation in presentation, diagnostic approaches, and surgical and antibiotic treatment of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm. The detailed information about the diagnostic approaches to this rare disease and its antibiotic/other treatment contributes to existing knowledge of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm. Because of the individual variation patients should be discussed in a multidisciplinary team with a vascular surgeon, infectious disease specialist, and clinical microbiologist.