Periodontal inflamed surface area and C-reactive protein as predictors of HbA1c: a study in Indonesia

Hendri Susanto, Willem Nesse, Pieter U. Dijkstra, Evelien Hoedemaker, Yvonne Huijser van Reenen, Dewi Agustina, Arjan Vissink*, Frank Abbas

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)
488 Downloads (Pure)


Periodontitis may exert an infectious and inflammatory burden, evidenced by increased C-reactive protein (CRP). This burden may impair blood glucose control (HbA1c). The aim of our study was to analyze whether periodontitis severity as measured with the periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA) and CRP predict HbA1c levels in a group of healthy Indonesians and a group of Indonesians treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). A full-mouth periodontal examination, including probing pocket depth, gingival recession, clinical attachment loss, plaque index and bleeding on probing, was performed in 132 healthy Indonesians and 101 Indonesians treated for DM2. Using these data, PISA was calculated. In addition, HbA1c and CRP were analyzed. A validated questionnaire was used to assess smoking, body mass index (BMI), education and medical conditions. In regression analyses, it was assessed whether periodontitis severity and CRP predict HbA1c, controlling for confounding and effect modification (i.e., age, sex, BMI, pack years, and education). In healthy Indonesians, PISA and CRP predicted HbA1c as did age, sex, and smoking. In Indonesians treated for DM2, PISA did not predict HbA1c. Periodontitis may impair blood glucose regulation in healthy Indonesians in conjunction with elevated CRP levels. The potential effect of periodontitis on glucose control in DM2 patients may be masked by DM2 treatment. Clinical relevance: periodontitis may impair blood glucose control through exerting an inflammatory and infectious burden evidenced by increased levels of CRP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1237-1242
Number of pages6
JournalClinical Oral Investigations
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug-2012


  • Periodontitis
  • Periodontal inflamed surface area/PISA
  • HbA1c
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • RISK

Cite this