Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha)-mediated regulation of multidrug resistance 2 (Mdr2) expression and function in mice

T Kok*, VW Bloks, H Wolters, R Havinga, PLM Jansen, B Staels, F Kuipers

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

145 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a nuclear receptor that controls expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and is activated by fatty acids and hypolipidaemic fibrates. Fibrates induce the hepatic expression of murine multidrug resistance 2 (Mdr2), encoding the canalicular phospholipid translocator. The physiological role of PPARalpha in regulation of Mdr2 and other genes involved in bile formation is unknown. We found no differences in hepatic expression of the ATP binding cassette transporter genes Mdr2, Bsep (bile salt export pump), Mdr1a/1b, Abca1 and Abcg5/Abcg8 (implicated in cholesterol transport), the bile salt-uptake systems Ntcp (Na+-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide gene) and Oatp1 (organic anion-transporting polypeptide I gene) or in bile formation between wild-type and Pparalpha((-/-)) mice. Upon treatment of wild-type mice with ciprofibrate (0.05 %, w/w, in diet for 2 weeks), the expression of Mdr2 (+ 3-fold), Mdr1a (+ 6-fold) and Mdr1b (+ 11-fold) mRNAs was clearly induced, while that of Oatp1 (- 5-fold) was reduced. Mdr2 protein levels were increased, whereas Bsep, Ntcp and Oatp1 were drastically decreased. Exposure of cultured wildtype mouse hepatocytes to PPARalpha agonists specifically induced Mdr2 mRNA levels and did not affect expression of Mdr1a/1b. Altered transporter expression in fibrate-treated wild-type mice was associated with a approximate to 400 % increase in bile flow: secretion of phospholipids and cholesterol was increased only during high-bile-salt infusions. No fibrate effects were observed in Pparalpha((-/-)) mice. In conclusion, our results show that basal bile formation is not affected by PPARalpha deficiency in mice. The induction of Mdr2 mRNA and Mdr2 protein levels by fibrates is mediated by PPARalpha, while the induction of Mdr1a/1b in vivo probably reflects a secondary phenomenon related to chronic PPARalpha activation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)539-547
Number of pages9
JournalBiochemical Journal
Volume369
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1-Feb-2003
Event52nd Annual Meeting of the American-Association-for-the-Study-of-Liver-Diseases -
Duration: 9-Nov-200113-Nov-2001

Keywords

  • ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter
  • bile
  • bile salt
  • peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha)-null mouse
  • phospholipid
  • P-GLYCOPROTEIN EXPRESSION
  • BILIARY LIPID SECRETION
  • SALT EXPORT PUMP
  • GENE-EXPRESSION
  • DEFICIENT MICE
  • BILE-SALTS
  • CHOLESTEROL 7-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE
  • LIPOPROTEIN METABOLISM
  • HEPATIC TRANSPORT
  • DOWN-REGULATION

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