OBJECTIVE: The research questions of this study are 1) How do pharmacists respond to negative emotions of patients during a clinical medication review (CMR)? 2) How do patients express negative emotions during a CMR? 3) Who (pharmacist or patient) initiates a negative emotion to be discussed during a CMR?
METHODS: We used video-recordings to observe 132 CMR interviews of 49 pharmacists. Videos were coded with the Verona coding definitions on emotional sequences(-provider responses) (VR-CoDES(-P)).
RESULTS: In total 2538 negative emotions were identified, mainly expressed as cues (95.0 %). Often cues were expressed as verbal hints to hidden concerns (33.2 %) or were related to cognitive or physical causes (28.3 %).Three-quarters of the negative emotions were elicited by patients. 2670 pharmacists' responses were coded. The most common response was non-explicit providing space (77.6 %) and the least common response was explicit reducing space (5.8 %).
CONCLUSION: Pharmacists are mainly non-explicitly providing space in their responses. While this hinders their ability to capture patients' problems it also may enable patients to initiate topics.
PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Pharmacists are able to respond to patients' negative emotions. Training should focus on developing pharmacist's skills to be more explicit in their responses to get more in-depth knowledge of patients' problems.