Pharmacogenetics of Long-Term Outcomes of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: The Functional Role of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19

Amrit K. Sandhu*, Elnaz Naderi, Morenika J. Wijninga, Edith J. Liemburg, Danielle Cath, Richard Bruggeman, Behrooz Z. Alizadeh*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) are complex mental disorders, and while treatment with antipsychotics is important, many patients do not respond or develop serious side effects. Genetic variation has been shown to play a considerable role in determining an individual’s response to antipsychotic medication. However, previous pharmacogenetic (PGx) studies have been limited by small sample sizes, lack of consensus regarding relevant genetic variants, and cross-sectional designs. The current study aimed to investigate the association between PGx variants and long-term clinical outcomes in 691 patients of European ancestry with SSD. Using evidence from the literature on candidate genes involved in antipsychotic pharmacodynamics, we created a polygenic risk score (PRS) to investigate its association with clinical outcomes. We also created PRS using core variants of psychotropic drug metabolism enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP2C19. Furthermore, the CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 functional activity scores were calculated to determine the relationship between metabolism and clinical outcomes. We found no association for PGx PRSs and clinical outcomes; however, an association was found with CYP2D6 activity scores by the traditional method. Higher CYP2D6 metabolism was associated with high positive and high cognitive impairment groups relative to low symptom severity groups. These findings highlight the need to test PGx efficacy with different symptom domains. More evidence is needed before pharmacogenetic variation can contribute to personalized treatment plans.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1354
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of personalized medicine
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 4-Sept-2023


  • antipsychotic
  • cardiometabolic syndrome
  • Cytochrome P450
  • genotyping
  • metabolism
  • pharmacodynamic
  • pharmacogenetic
  • pharmacokinetic
  • polygenic risk score
  • schizophrenia

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