Ertapenem is a carbapenem antibiotic with activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Dose simulations in a hollow-fiber infection model showed that 2,000 mg once daily is an appropriate dose to be tested in clinical studies. Before using this dose in a phase II study, the aim of this prospective pharmacokinetic study was to confirm the pharmacokinetics of 2,000 mg once daily in tuberculosis (TB) patients. Twelve TB patients received a single intravenous dose of 2,000 mg ertapenem as a 30-min infusion. Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h postadministration. Drug concentrations were measured using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay. A large interindividual variation in the pharmacokinetics of ertapenem was observed. The median (interquartile range) area under the plasma concentration-time curve to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)) was 2,032 (1,751 to 2,346) mg center dot h/liter, the intercompartmental clearance (CL12) was 1.941 (0.979 to 2.817) liters/h, and the volume of distribution in the central compartment (V1) was 1.514 (1.064 to 2.210) liters. A more than doseproportional increase in AUC was observed compared to results reported for 1,000 mg ertapenem in multidrug-resistant TB patients. Based on a MIC of 1.0 mg/liter, 11 out of 12 patients would have reached the target value of unbound drug exceeding the MIC over 40% of the time (f40% T > MIC). In conclusion, this study shows that 2,000 mg ertapenem once daily in TB patients reached the expected f40% T > MIC for most of the patients, and exploration in a phase 2 study can be advocated.
- RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS