OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) at different intensities (moderate and vigorous or moderate-to-vigorous) and prospective weight gain in non-obese people. We also examined whether these associations were independent of other lifestyle factors and changes in muscle mass and whether they were age-dependent and changed over a person's life course.
METHODS: The data were extracted from the Lifelines cohort study (N = 52,498; 43.5% men) and excluded obese individuals (BMI > 30 kg/m2). We used the validated SQUASH questionnaire to estimate moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA; MET≥4), moderate (MPA; MET between 4 and 6.5) and vigorous PA (VPA; MET≥6.5). Body weight was objectively measured, and changes were standardized to a 4-year period. Separate analyses, adjusted for age, educational level, diet, smoking, alcohol consumption and changes in creatinine excretion (a marker of muscle mass), were performed for men and women.
RESULTS: The average weight gain was + 0.45 ± 0.03 kg in women. Relative to each reference groups (No-MVPA, No-MPA and No-VPA), MVPA (Beta (95%CI): - 0.34 kg (- 0.56;-0.13)), MPA (- 0.32 kg (- 0.54;-0.10)) and VPA (- 0.30 kg (- 0.43;-0.18)) were associated with less gain in body weight in women after adjusting for potential confounders, described above. These associations were dose-dependent when physically active individuals were divided in tertiles. Beta-coefficients (95%CI) for the lowest, middle, and highest MVPA tertiles relative to the 'No-MVPA' were, respectively, - 0.24 (- 0.47;-0.02), - 0.31 (- 0.53;-0.08), and - 0.38 (- 0.61;-0.16) kg. The average weight gain in men was + 0.13 ± 0.03 kg, and only VPA, not MPA was associated with less body weight gain. Beta-coefficients (95%CI) for the VPA tertiles relative to the 'No-VPA' group were, respectively, - 0.25 (- 0.42;-0.09), - 0.19 (- 0.38;-0.01) and - 0.20 (- 0.38;-0.02) kg. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, the association was no longer significant in men. The potential benefits of leisure-time PA were age-stratified and mainly observed in younger adults (men < 35 years) or stronger with younger age (women < 55 years).
CONCLUSION: Higher leisure-time MVPA, MPA, and VPA were associated with less weight gain in women < 55 years. In younger men (< 35 years), only VPA was associated with less weight gain.
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity|
|Publication status||Published - 7-Jun-2021|
- Body Weight/physiology
- Cohort Studies
- Leisure Activities
- Middle Aged
- Weight Gain/physiology
Bakker, S. (Creator), Dotinga, A. (Creator), Vonk, J. (Creator), Smidt, N. (Creator), Scholtens, S. (Creator), Swertz, M. (Creator), Wijmenga, C. (Creator), Wolffenbuttel, B. (Creator), Stolk, R. (Creator), van Zon, S. (Creator), Rosmalen, J. (Creator), Postma, D. S. (Creator), de Boer, R. (Creator), Navis, G. (Creator), Slaets, J. (Creator), Ormel, H. (Creator), van Dijk, F. (Creator) & Bolmer, B. (Data Manager), Lifelines, 2006
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