Background: Short-term survival after solid-organ transplantation has substantially improved, and the focus has shifted to long-term survival, including the role of physical activity (PA). Knowledge about PA and sedentary time in recipients of solid-organ transplantation is limited, and identification of the levels and associated factors is necessary for intervention development.
Objective: The objectives of this study were to investigate the level of PA and sedentary time in recipients of solid-organ transplantation and to identify factors associated with these behaviors.
Design: The design consisted of a cross-sectional survey.
Methods: Questionnaires on PA level, sedentary time, and potential associated factors were used for recipients of solid-organ transplantation (kidney, liver, lung, and heart [N = 656]). Multiple regression analyses with a variable selection procedure were used.
Results: Fewer than 60% of the recipients fulfilled the PA guideline. Factors significantly associated with a lower level of PA included being a woman, younger age (nonlinear), not actively working or being retired, physical limitations, and low expectations and self-confidence. Factors significantly associated with less sedentary time included exercise self-efficacy and not actively working or being retired. Significantly associated with more sedentary time were a high education level, fear of negative effects, physical limitations, and the motivator health and physical outcomes. The type of transplantation did not significantly influence either of the outcome measures.
Limitations: The design did not allow for causal inferences to be made. The studied associated factors were limited to individual and interpersonal factors. Self-reported measures of PA and sedentary time were used.
Conclusions: In intervention development directed at increasing the level of PA and reducing sedentary time in recipients of solid-organ transplantation, attention should be paid to physical limitations, fear of negative effects, low expectations and self-confidence, health and physical outcomes, and exercise self-efficacy.