Background: Type 2 diabetes is associated with both impaired insulin action at target tissues and impaired insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction may play a role in both insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. Plasma creatine has been proposed as a potential marker for mitochondrial dysfunction. We aimed to investigate the association between plasma creatine and incident type 2 diabetes.
Methods: We measured fasting plasma creatine concentrations by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in participants of the general population-based PREVEND study. The study outcome was incident type 2 diabetes, defined as a fasting plasma glucose >= 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dl); a random sample plasma glucose >= 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dl); self-report of a physician diagnosis or the use of glucose-lowering medications based on a central pharmacy registration. Associations of plasma creatine with type 2 diabetes were quantified using Cox proportional hazards models and were adjusted for potential confounders.
Results: We included 4735 participants aged 52 +/- 11 years, of whom 49% were male. Mean plasma creatine concentrations were 36.7 +/- 17.6 mu mol/L, with lower concentrations in males than in females (30.4 +/- 15.1 mu mol/L vs. 42.7 +/- 17.7 mu mol/L; p for difference
Conclusion: Fasting plasma creatine concentrations are lower in males than in females. Higher plasma creatine is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in males.
- general population
- type 2 diabetes
- ACTIVATED PROTEIN-KINASE
- KIDNEY L-ARGININE
- MITOCHONDRIAL DYSFUNCTION
- GLYCINE AMIDINOTRANSFERASE