Population Pharmacokinetic Modelling and Limited Sampling Strategies for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Pyrazinamide in Patients with Tuberculosis

Reihaneh Abolhassani-Chimeh, Onno W Akkerman, Antonia M I Saktiawati, Nieko C Punt, Mathieu S Bolhuis, Yanri W Subronto, S. Sumardi, Tjip S van der Werf, Jos G W Kosterink, Jan-Willem C Alffenaar, Marieke G G Sturkenboom*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
75 Downloads (Pure)


Pyrazinamide is one of the first-line antituberculosis drugs. The efficacy of pyrazinamide is associated with the ratio of 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC24) to MIC. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a limited sampling strategy (LSS) based on a population pharmacokinetic (popPK) model to predict AUC24. A popPK model was developed using an iterative two-stage Bayesian procedure and was externally validated. Using data from 20 treatment-naive adult tuberculosis (TB) patients, a one compartment model with transit absorption and first-order elimination best described pyrazinamide pharmacokinetics and fed state was the only significant covariate for absorption rate constant (ka). External validation, using data from 26 TB patients, showed that the popPK model predicted AUC24 with a slight underestimation of 2.1%. LSS were calculated using Monte Carlo simulation (n = 10,000). External validation showed LSS with time points 0 h, 2 h, and 6 h performed best with RMSE of 9.90% and bias of 0.06%. Food slowed absorption of pyrazinamide, but did not affect bioavailability, which may be advantageous in case of nausea or vomiting in which food can be used to diminish these effects. In this study, we successfully developed and validated a popPK model and LSS, using 0 h, 2 h, and 6 h postdose samples, that could be used to perform therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of pyrazinamide in TB patients.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Issue number7
Early online date21-Jun-2022
Publication statusPublished - Jul-2022

Cite this