INTRODUCTION: Portal vein obstruction (PVO) is a significant vascular complication after liver transplantation (LT) in pediatric patients. Current treatment strategies include percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), with or without stent placement, mesorex bypass (MRB), splenorenal shunt, mesocaval shunt, endovascular recanalization (EVR), splenic artery embolization and splenectomy. However, specific characteristics of patients undergoing intervention and selection of individual treatment and its efficacy have remained unclear. This review systematically analyzed biochemical and clinical characteristics, selection of treatment, efficacy, and post-procedural complications.
METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed and Embase between January 1995 and March 2021 for studies on the management of PVO after LT. We analyzed the reports for biochemical and clinical characteristics at the timing of the intervention in different patients, selection of treatment, and reported efficacies.
RESULTS: We found 22 cohort studies with 362 patients who had the following characteristics: biliary atresia (83%), living-donor LT (85%), thrombocytopenia (73%), splenomegaly (40%), ascites (16%), or gastrointestinal bleeding (26%). The 3-year primary patency of PTA without stent placement was similar to that with stent placement (70%-80% and 43%-94%, respectively). MRB was used as an initial treatment with a 3-year patency of 75% to 100%. One study showed that 5-year primary patency of EVR was 80%. Secondary patency was 90% to 100% after 3 years in all studies with PTA alone, PTA/stent placement, and stent placement alone.
CONCLUSION: This is the first review of all treatment protocols in PVO after pediatric LT. We showed that an important group of patients has severe symptoms of portal hypertension. Efficacy of all treatment modalities was high in the included studies which make them important modalities for these patients.
- Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty
- Stent placement
- Mesorex bypass
- Endovascular recanalization
- Portal vein obstruction
- Systematic review
- STENT PLACEMENT