Positive and Negative Parenting in Conduct Disorder with High versus Low Levels of Callous-Unemotional Traits

Ruth Pauli*, Peter Tino, Jack C. Rogers, Rosalind Baker, Roberta Clanton, Philippa Birch, Abigail Brown, Gemma Daniel, Lisandra Ferreira, Liam Grisley, Gregor Kohls, Sarah Baumann, Anka Bernhard, Anne Martinelli, Katharina Ackermann, Helen Lazaratou, Foteini Tsiakoulia, Panagiota Bali, Helena Oldenhof, Lucres JansenAreti Smaragdi, Karen Gonzalez-Madruga, Miguel Angel Gonzalez-Torres, Maider Maider Gonzalez de Artaza-Lavesa, Martin Steppan, Noortje Vriends, Aitana Bigorra, Reka Siklosi, Sreejita Ghosh, Kerstin Bunte, Roberta Dochnal, Amaia Hervás, Christina Stadler, Aranzazu Fernandez-Rivas, Graeme Fairchild, Arne Popma, Dimitris Dikeos, Kerstin Konrad, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Christine M. Freitag, Pia Rotshtein, Stephane A. De Brito

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Less is known about the relationship between conduct disorder (CD), callous-unemotional (CU) traits and positive and negative parenting in youth compared to early childhood. We combined traditional univariate analyses with a novel machine learning classifier (Angle-based Generalised Matrix Learning Vector Quantisation) to classify youth (N = 756; 9-18 years) into typically developing (TD) or CD groups with or without elevated CU traits (CD/HCU, CD/LCU respectively) using youth- and parent-report parenting behaviour. At the group level, both CD/HCU and CD/LCU were associated with high negative and low positive parenting relative to TD. However, only positive parenting differed between the CD/HCU and CD/LCU groups. In classification analyses, performance was best when distinguishing CD/HCU from TD groups and poorest when distinguishing CD/HCU from CD/LCU groups. Positive and negative parenting were both relevant when distinguishing CD/HCU from TD, negative parenting was most relevant when distinguishing between CD/LCU and TD, and positive parenting was most relevant when distinguishing CD/HCU from CD/LCU groups. These findings suggest that while positive parenting distinguishes between CD/HCU and CD/LCU, negative parenting is associated with both CD subtypes. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple parenting behaviours in CD with varying levels of CU traits in late childhood/adolescence
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)980–991
Number of pages12
JournalDevelopment and Psychopathology
Volume33
Issue number3
Early online date23-Jun-2020
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Keywords

  • Conduct disorder
  • Angle-GMLVQ
  • Machine learning
  • Parenting
  • Callous-unemotional

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