Positive Self-Compassion, Self-Coldness, and Psychological Outcomes in College Students: a Person-Centered Approach

Liyang Wu, Maya J. Schroevers, Lei Zhu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Objectives

Self-compassion is related to psychological outcomes. By examining wholistic concept of self-compassion, previous research has overlooked the possibility that people may differ in combination of positive self-compassion and self-coldness. This study, using a person-centered approach, aimed to identify subgroups of college students based on different profiles of positive self-compassion and self-coldness. We also examined how these profiles related to socio-demographic variables as well as psychological outcomes. 

Methods

This cross-sectional study included 1029 Chinese college students. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect levels of positive self-compassion and self-coldness (including six facets) and psychological outcomes (depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, negative affect, and positive affect). A latent profile analysis was performed to identify different profiles based on the six facets. The Bolck-Croon-Hagenaars approach was used to examine how profiles related to socio-demographic variables and psychological outcomes.

Results

Five distinct profiles were identified: high self-coldness, low self-compassion (16.2%), high self-compassion, low self-coldness (17.2%), average self-compassion, average self-coldness (38.9%), low self-compassion, low self-coldness (17.5%), and high self-compassion, high self-coldness (10.2%). Older people tended to report high self-compassion, high self-coldness profile, and females tended to have high self-coldness, low self-compassion profile. People with high self-compassion, low self-coldness profile reported the best psychological outcomes, whereas those in high self-coldness, low self-compassion and high self-compassion, high self-coldness profiles experienced the worst outcomes.

Conclusions

We identified five subgroups with different combinations of the six facets of self-compassion and self-coldness. People with distinct profiles differed on psychological outcomes. Future research is needed to adopt longitudinal design and replicate our findings in different groups.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2510-2518
Number of pages9
JournalMindfulness
Volume12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct-2021

Keywords

  • Profiles of self-compassion
  • Depressive symptoms
  • Anxiety symptoms
  • Positive affect
  • Negative affect
  • Latent profile analysis
  • MENTAL-HEALTH
  • SHORT-FORM
  • SCALE
  • VALIDITY
  • METAANALYSIS
  • MINDFULNESS
  • ASSOCIATION
  • COMPONENTS
  • VARIABLES
  • SEVERITY

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