Whether to choose Haploidentical (Haplo) or one-antigen mismatched unrelated donor (1Ag-MMUD) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) remains an unanswered question. We compared PTCy- Haplo-HCT to PTCy-1Ag-MMUD-HCT for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in complete remission (three groups: 1Ag-MMUD using peripheral blood (1Ag-MMUD-PB; n = 155); Haplo using bone marrow (Haplo-BM; n = 647) or peripheral blood (Haplo-PB; n = 949)). Haplo-BM and Haplo-PB had a higher non-relapse mortality (NRM) compared to 1Ag-MMUD-PB (HR 2.28, 95% CI 1.23-4.24, p < 0.01; HR 2.65, 95% CI 1.46-4.81, p < 0.01, respectively). Haplo groups experienced a lower leukemia-free survival (LFS) compared to 1Ag-MMUD-PB (Haplo-BM: HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.06-2.14, p = 0.02; Haplo-PB: 1.47, 95% CI 1.05-2.05, p = 0.02); overall survival (OS) was also lower in Haplo-HCT (Haplo-BM: HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.02-2.21, p = 0.04; Haplo-PB: HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.05-2.19, p = 0.03). No differences were observed for graft-versus-host/relapse-free survival (GRFS) and relapse incidence (RI). Haplo-BM was associated with a lower risk of grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.24-0.81; p < 0.01), while no statistical differences were observed between groups for grade II-IV aGVHD and for cGVHD. Use of PTCy in 1Ag-MMUD-HCT is a valid alternative to consider when using alternative donors. Larger analysis of 1Ag-MMUD versus Haplo-HCT are warranted.
- Graft vs Host Disease
- Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
- Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/therapy
- Retrospective Studies
- Transplantation Conditioning
- Transplantation, Haploidentical
- Unrelated Donors