Objectives: To investigate the relation of postconcussive complaints, anxiety, and depression with vocational outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) of various severities and to assess sex differences.
Design: A prospective cross-sectional cohort study.
Setting: Level I trauma center.
Participants: Adults (N=242) with TBI of various severity.
Interventions: Not applicable.
Main Outcome Measures: Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale, return to work (RTW), Head Injury Symptom Checklist, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.
Results: In 67% of the patients, complaints were present; 22% were anxious, and 18% were depressed. The frequency of complaints increased significantly with injury severity, in contrast to anxiety and depression. Frequencies of patients with anxiety and depression (9% and 5%) were lower with complete RTW than with incomplete RTW (42% and 37%; P
Conclusions: Anxiety and depression are related to vocational outcome after TBI, with a different profile in the minor TBI category, partly due to sex differences. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2013;94:867-74 (C) 2013 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine
- Traumatic brain injuries
- MILD HEAD-INJURY
- POST-CONCUSSIONAL SYNDROME
- DSM-IV CRITERIA