Postnatal Smoke Exposure Further Increases the Hepatic Nicotine Metabolism in Prenatally Smoke Exposed Male Offspring and Is Linked with Aberrant Cyp2a5 Methylation

Khosbayar Lkhagvadorj, Zhijun Zeng, Karolin F Meyer, Laura P Verweij, Wierd Kooistra, Marjan Reinders-Luinge, Henk W Dijkhuizen, Inge A M de Graaf, Torsten Plösch, Machteld N Hylkema

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Abstract

Prenatal smoke exposure (PreSE) is a risk factor for nicotine dependence, which is further enhanced by postnatal smoke exposure (PostSE). One susceptibility gene to nicotine dependence is Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A6, an enzyme responsible for the conversion of nicotine to cotinine in the liver. Higher CYP2A6 activity is associated with nicotine dependence and could be regulated through DNA methylation. In this study we investigated whether PostSE further impaired PreSE-induced effects on nicotine metabolism, along with Cyp2a5, orthologue of CYP2A6, mRNA expression and DNA methylation. Using a mouse model where prenatally smoke-exposed adult offspring were exposed to cigarette smoke for 3 months, enzyme activity, mRNA levels, and promoter methylation of hepatic Cyp2a5 were evaluated. We found that in male offspring, PostSE increased PreSE-induced cotinine levels and Cyp2a5 mRNA expression. In addition, both PostSE and PreSE changed Cyp2a5 DNA methylation in male groups. PreSE however decreased cotinine levels whereas it had no effect on Cyp2a5 mRNA expression or methylation. These adverse outcomes of PreSE and PostSE were most prominent in males. When considered in the context of the human health aspects, the combined effect of prenatal and adolescent smoke exposure could lead to an accelerated risk for nicotine dependence later in life.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberijms22010164
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume22
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 26-Dec-2020

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