Pre- and Post-Migration Determinants of Socio-Cultural Integration of African Immigrants in Italy and Spain

T. Fokkema, H. de Haas

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    74 Citations (Scopus)


    Using a unique dataset (N=2,014), we examine the pre- and post-migration determinants of socio-cultural integration among first-generation immigrant groups in southern Europe: Moroccan and Senegalese migrants in Spain, and Egyptian and Ghanaian migrants in Italy. The results of the pooled and immigrant-group specific regression analyses partly highlight the dominance of pre-migration factors. Immigrants who were well-educated and well-informed prior to migrating and who migrate at a young age, achieve higher levels of socio-cultural integration. Going against some hypotheses found in the literature, female gender and North African origin have a positive effect on socio-cultural integration as opposed to male gender and sub-Saharan origin. With regard to post-migration factors, occupational status is the main economic determinant of socio-cultural integration. Interestingly, being employed as such has no significant effect on socio-cultural integration. This suggests that labour market segmentation and discrimination negatively impact upon socio-cultural integration. The results also suggest that policies allowing immigrants to benefit from the human capital they carry across borders and achieve upward socio-economic mobility are likely to enhance their socio-cultural integration.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)3-26
    Number of pages24
    JournalInternational Migration Review
    Issue number6
    Publication statusPublished - 2015


    • pre- and post migration determinants
    • socio-cultural integration
    • first generation immigrant groups
    • southern Europe
    • Moroccans migrants
    • Senegalese migrants
    • Ghanaian migrants
    • Egyptian migrants
    • Spain
    • Italy
    • SSCI

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