Predicting Deep Hypnotic State From Sleep Brain Rhythms Using Deep Learning: A Data-Repurposing Approach

Sunil Belur Nagaraj*, Sowmya M Ramaswamy, Maud A S Weerink, Michel M R F Struys

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
51 Downloads (Pure)


BACKGROUND: Brain monitors tracking quantitative brain activities from electroencephalogram (EEG) to predict hypnotic levels have been proposed as a labor-saving alternative to behavioral assessments. Expensive clinical trials are required to validate any newly developed processed EEG monitor for every drug and combinations of drugs due to drug-specific EEG patterns. There is a need for an alternative, efficient, and economical method.

METHODS: Using deep learning algorithms, we developed a novel data-repurposing framework to predict hypnotic levels from sleep brain rhythms. We used an online large sleep data set (5723 clinical EEGs) for training the deep learning algorithm and a clinical trial hypnotic data set (30 EEGs) for testing during dexmedetomidine infusion. Model performance was evaluated using accuracy and the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC).

RESULTS: The deep learning model (a combination of a convolutional neural network and long short-term memory units) trained on sleep EEG predicted deep hypnotic level with an accuracy (95% confidence interval [CI]) = 81 (79.2-88.3)%, AUC (95% CI) = 0.89 (0.82-0.94) using dexmedetomidine as a prototype drug. We also demonstrate that EEG patterns during dexmedetomidine-induced deep hypnotic level are homologous to nonrapid eye movement stage 3 EEG sleep.

CONCLUSIONS: We propose a novel method to develop hypnotic level monitors using large sleep EEG data, deep learning, and a data-repurposing approach, and for optimizing such a system for monitoring any given individual. We provide a novel data-repurposing framework to predict hypnosis levels using sleep EEG, eliminating the need for new clinical trials to develop hypnosis level monitors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1211-1221
Number of pages11
JournalAnesthesia and Analgesia
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May-2020


  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Brain/drug effects
  • Brain Waves/drug effects
  • Data Analysis
  • Deep Learning
  • Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage
  • Electroencephalography/drug effects
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Sleep/drug effects

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