BACKGROUND: Brain monitors tracking quantitative brain activities from electroencephalogram (EEG) to predict hypnotic levels have been proposed as a labor-saving alternative to behavioral assessments. Expensive clinical trials are required to validate any newly developed processed EEG monitor for every drug and combinations of drugs due to drug-specific EEG patterns. There is a need for an alternative, efficient, and economical method.
METHODS: Using deep learning algorithms, we developed a novel data-repurposing framework to predict hypnotic levels from sleep brain rhythms. We used an online large sleep data set (5723 clinical EEGs) for training the deep learning algorithm and a clinical trial hypnotic data set (30 EEGs) for testing during dexmedetomidine infusion. Model performance was evaluated using accuracy and the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC).
RESULTS: The deep learning model (a combination of a convolutional neural network and long short-term memory units) trained on sleep EEG predicted deep hypnotic level with an accuracy (95% confidence interval [CI]) = 81 (79.2-88.3)%, AUC (95% CI) = 0.89 (0.82-0.94) using dexmedetomidine as a prototype drug. We also demonstrate that EEG patterns during dexmedetomidine-induced deep hypnotic level are homologous to nonrapid eye movement stage 3 EEG sleep.
CONCLUSIONS: We propose a novel method to develop hypnotic level monitors using large sleep EEG data, deep learning, and a data-repurposing approach, and for optimizing such a system for monitoring any given individual. We provide a novel data-repurposing framework to predict hypnosis levels using sleep EEG, eliminating the need for new clinical trials to develop hypnosis level monitors.
- Brain/drug effects
- Brain Waves/drug effects
- Data Analysis
- Deep Learning
- Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage
- Electroencephalography/drug effects
- Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage
- Middle Aged
- Predictive Value of Tests
- Sleep/drug effects