Background: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may have more prevalent and severe periodontitis than healthy controls. Periodontitis may increase the systemic inflammation in RA. The aim of this study is to assess periodontitis prevalence and severity and its potential association with systemic inflammation in Indonesian patients with RA.
Methods: A full-mouth periodontal examination including probing depth, gingival recession, plaque index, and bleeding on probing was performed in 75 Indonesians with RA and 75 age-, sex-, and smoking-matched Indonesian controls. A validated questionnaire was used to assess smoking, body mass index, education, and medical conditions. In addition, in all participants, the use of drugs was noted, and erythrocyte sedimentation rates and serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), rheumatoid factor, and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies were measured. Differences in periodontitis prevalence and 12 measures of periodontitis severity between patients with RA and controls were analyzed using univariate analyses.
Results: No significant differences in periodontitis prevalence and 11 measures of periodontitis severity between patients with RA and controls were observed. Conversely, patients with RA had a significantly lower surface area of healthy pocket epithelium versus controls (P = 0.008), and a tendency toward higher hsCRP levels was observed in patients with RA with severe periodontitis compared with patients with RA with no mild or moderate periodontitis (P = 0.063). It has to be noted that all patients with RA were on anti-inflammatory drugs, whereas none of the controls used such drugs.
Conclusion: Prevalence and severity of periodontitis in Indonesian patients with RA is comparable to controls but with less healthy pocket epithelium than in controls and a tendency toward a higher inflammatory state in patients with RA and severe periodontitis.
- C-reactive protein
- periodontal pocket
- C-REACTIVE PROTEIN
- GINGIVAL CREVICULAR FLUID
- INFLAMED SURFACE-AREA
- AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS