Primary and persistent negative symptoms: Concepts, assessments and neurobiological bases

Armida Mucci*, Eleonora Merlotti, Alp Ucok, Andre Aleman, Silvana Galderisi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

61 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Primary and persistent negative symptoms (PPNS) represent an unmet need in the care of people with schizophrenia. They have an unfavourable impact on real-life functioning and do not respond to available treatments. Underlying etiopathogenetic mechanisms of PPNS are still unknown. The presence of primary and enduring negative symptoms characterizes deficit schizophrenia (DS), proposed as a separate disease entity with respect to non-deficit schizophrenia (NDS). More recently, to reduce the heterogeneity of negative symptoms by using criteria easily applicable in the context of clinical trials, the concept of persistent negative symptoms (PNS) was developed.

Both PNS and DS constructs include enduring negative symptoms (at least 6months for PNS and 12months for DS) that do not respond to available treatments. PNS exclude secondary negative symptoms based on a cross-sectional evaluation of severity thresholds on commonly used rating scales for positive symptoms, depression and extrapyramidal side effects; the DS diagnosis, instead, excludes all potential sources of secondary negative symptoms based on a clinical longitudinal assessment.

In this paper we review the evolution of concepts and assessment modalities relevant to PPNS, data on prevalence of DS and PNS, as well as studies on clinical, neuropsychological, brain imaging electrophysiological and psychosocial functioning aspects of DS and PNS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19-28
Number of pages10
JournalSchizophrenia Research
Volume186
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug-2017

Keywords

  • Deficit schizophrenia
  • Persistent negative symptoms
  • Neuroimaging
  • Electrophysiology
  • Neurocognition
  • Real-life functioning
  • NON-DEFICIT SCHIZOPHRENIA
  • CEREBRAL-BLOOD-FLOW
  • EPISODE PSYCHOSIS PATIENTS
  • PURSUIT EYE-MOVEMENTS
  • NONDEFICIT SCHIZOPHRENIA
  • 1ST EPISODE
  • FOLLOW-UP
  • SUMMER BIRTH
  • CLINICAL-TRIALS
  • RISK-FACTORS

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