Prognostic Association of Anxiety Post Myocardial Infarction With Mortality and New Cardiac Events: A Meta-Analysis

Annelieke M. Roest, Elisabeth J. Martens, Johan Denollet, Peter de Jonge*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Objective: To assess the association of anxiety after myocardial infarction (MI) with cardiac prognosis. Methods: A meta-analysis of references derived from MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PSYCINFO (1975-March 2009) was performed without language restrictions. End point was cardiac outcome defined as all-cause mortality, cardiac mortality, and cardiac events. The authors selected prospective studies with at least 6 months follow-up, and anxiety had to be assessed within 3 months after MI with reliable and valid instruments. Results: Twelve papers met selection criteria. These studies described follow-up (on average, 2.6 years) of 5750 patients with MI. Anxious patients were at risk of adverse events (odds ratio (OR) fixed, 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18-1.56; p <.001). Anxiety was also specifically associated with all-cause mortality (OR fixed, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.02-2.13; p = .04), cardiac mortality (OR fixed, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.03-1.47; p = .02), and new cardiac events (OR fixed, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.31-2.23; p <.001). Conclusions: Post-MI anxiety is associated with a 36% increased risk of adverse cardiac outcomes in bivariate analyses. Because the existing literature is small and contains several limitations, more research is needed to evaluate the association of anxiety and prognosis in patients with MI and to assess the extent to which this association is independent of clinical variables, such as disease severity, and other psychological variables, especially depression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)563-569
Number of pages7
JournalPsychosomatic Medicine
Volume72
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010

Keywords

  • anxiety
  • myocardial infarction
  • meta-analysis
  • prognosis
  • mortality
  • CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE
  • ARTERY-DISEASE
  • SOCIAL SUPPORT
  • RISK-FACTORS
  • DEPRESSION
  • SYMPTOMS
  • PREDICTORS
  • CARE
  • VARIABILITY
  • PERSONALITY

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