BACKGROUND: Tube feeding dependence is a commonly observed debilitating side-effect of curative (chemo-) radiation in head and neck cancer patients that severely affects quality of life. Prevention of this side-effect can be obtained using advanced radiation techniques, such as IMRT. For radiotherapy treatment plan optimization, it has become increasingly important to develop prediction models that enable clinicians to predict the risk of tube feeding dependence for individual patients. To develop such a tool, information regarding the most relevant prognostic factors for tube feeding dependence is necessary.
OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this systematic review, conducted according to PRISMA guidelines, was to identify prognostic factors that are consistently found to be associated with tube feeding dependence at ≥6months after treatment. The secondary aim was to identify prognostic factors found to be associated with tube feeding placement and use at <6months.
DATA SOURCES: Articles were identified through a search in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. Approximately 2600 articles were screened and selected by inclusion and exclusion criteria.
RESULTS: Fourteen retrospective studies were identified that fulfilled the inclusion criteria and reported on prognostic factors for tube feeding dependence at ≥6months. The studies reported on patient and disease variables, treatment variables and DVH parameters. Two of these studies reported on a model for tube feeding dependence, one including DVH parameters. Additionally, 18 studies were identified that reported on prognostic factors for tube feeding placement and use at <6months.
CONCLUSIONS: Prognostic factors that were consistently associated with the risk of tube feeding dependence at ≥6months for head and neck cancer patients treated with (chemo-) radiotherapy were DVH parameters, including dose to the larynx, the pharyngeal constrictor muscle inferior and superior, and the dose to the contralateral parotid gland. Furthermore, advanced tumor and nodal stage, pretreatment weight loss, (concomitant) chemotherapy and prophylactic gastrostomy policy were prognostic for tube feeding dependence ≥6months. For tube feeding use at less than 6months, prognostic DVH parameters included dose and volume to the oral mucosa, dose to the contralateral submandibular gland, and also dose to the larynx and the pharyngeal constrictor muscle inferior and superior. Prognostic patients/disease and treatment factors for tube feeding placement and use at less than 6months were similar to the prognostic factors for tube feeding dependence at ≥6months, but also included several unique variables such as the use of narcotics prior to treatment and living alone at the time of treatment.
- Journal Article
- FACTORS AFFECTING PLACEMENT
- TRANSORAL ROBOTIC SURGERY
- INTENSITY-MODULATED RADIOTHERAPY
- PERCUTANEOUS ENDOSCOPIC GASTROSTOMY
- LOCALLY-ADVANCED HEAD
- SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA
- PROLONGED ENTERAL SUPPLEMENTATION
- PROPHYLACTIC SWALLOWING EXERCISES
- ORGAN-PRESERVATION TREATMENT