Prolonged Controlled Oxygenated Rewarming Improves Immediate Tubular Function and Energetic Recovery of Porcine Kidneys during Normothermic Machine Perfusion

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Background. Normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) is typically performed after a period of hypothermic preservation, which exposes the kidney to an abrupt increase in temperature and intravascular pressure. The resultant rewarming injury could be alleviated by gradual rewarming using controlled oxygenated rewarming (COR). This study aimed to establish which rewarming rate during COR results in the best protective effect on renal rewarming injury during subsequent NMP.

Methods. Twenty-eight viable porcine kidneys (n = 7/group) were obtained from a slaughterhouse. After these kidneys had sustained 30 min of warm ischemia and 24 h of oxygenated HMP, they were either rewarmed abruptly from 4-8 °C to 37 °C by directly initiating NMP or gradually throughout 30, 60, or 120 min of COR (rate of increase in kidney temperature of 4.46%/min, 2.20%/min, or 1.10%/min) before NMP.

Results. Kidneys that were rewarmed during the course of 120 min (COR-120) had significantly lower fractional excretion of sodium and glucose at the start of NMP compared with rewarming durations of 30 min (COR-30) and 60 min (COR-60). Although COR-120 kidneys showed superior immediate tubular function at the start of normothermic perfusion, this difference disappeared during NMP. Furthermore, energetic recovery was significantly improved in COR-30 and COR-120 kidneys compared with abruptly rewarmed and COR-60 kidneys.

Conclusions. This study suggests that a rewarming rate of 1.10%/min during COR-120 could result in superior immediate tubular function and energetic recovery during NMP. Therefore, it may provide the best protective effect against rewarming injury.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)639-647
Number of pages9
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1-Mar-2023

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