Prospects of labour migration pressure in Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey

W.G.F. Groenewold, H.A.G. de Valk, J.A.A. de Beer

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Gaining control over refugee flows and undocumented migrants currently dominate the media and political arenas in Europe. Underlying driving and enduring forces, such as employment-related migration pressure, tend to be relegated to the background. In this article, we explore migration pressure prospects up to 2035 in four countries with a tradition of emigration to Europe: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. More specifically, we first derive a simple decomposition model based on the relationship between working-age population (WAP) growth and growth of gross domestic production (GDP) and worker productivity (GDP/W). From this model, we derive an indicator of migration pressure: size of the non-employed population in a country. This model is then used as framework for deriving storylines for three different scenarios of economic and demographic change up to 2035. Subsequently,
storylines are operationalized, leading to scenario estimates of migration pressure up to 2035. The implications of the results are then discussed. Time series of macro-level economic and demographic data are used to underpin scenario assumptions.
Scenario results suggest that in all countries employment ratios are expected to
increase, but only in Tunisia is the size of the non-employed population?our
indicator of migration pressure?expected to decline, irrespective of the scenario.
Depending on the scenario, migration pressure remains high in Turkey and Morocco and may even become somewhat higher. The general conclusion is that in the long term, after 2035, labour migration pressure can be expected to decrease because the growth and size of the working-age population is decreasing while employment ratios are rising.
Original languageEnglish
Article number8
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - 2-Dec-2016


  • labour migration pressure
  • Turkey
  • Algeria
  • Tunis
  • Morocco
  • non-employed population
  • SSCI

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