The growing attention to entrepreneurship education has caused a debate about whether entrepreneurship education can affect entrepreneurial behavior. We use a quasi-experimental design, comparing a MSc entrepreneurship program with a comparison group from a MSc supply-chain management program to test the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education, relying on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). The findings suggest that entrepreneurship education is effective. Specifically, students participating in entrepreneurship education show an increase in attitudes and perceived behavioral control. Furthermore, they have higher entrepreneurial intentions at the end of the program. Finally, entrepreneurial intentions mediate the effect of entrepreneurship education on subsequent behavior associated with the creation of new business ventures. These results suggest that entrepreneurship education emphasizes increasing antecedents of intentions and behavior.