Quality of life in men and women with heart failure: association with outcome, and comparison between the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire and the EuroQol 5 dimensions questionnaire

Alice Ravera, Bernadet T. Santema, Iziah E. Sama, Sven Meyer, Carlo M. Lombardi, Valentina Carubelli, João Pedro Ferreira, Chim C. Lang, Kenneth Dickstein, Stefan D. Anker, Nilesh J. Samani, Faiez Zannad, Dirk J. van Veldhuisen, John R. Teerlink, Marco Metra*, Adriaan A. Voors

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Aims: We sought to analyse quality of life (QoL) measures derived from two questionnaires widely used in clinical trials, the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) and the EuroQoL 5 dimensions (EQ-5D), and to compare their prognostic value in men and women with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).

Methods and results: From the BIOlogy Study to TAilored Treatment in Chronic Heart Failure (BIOSTAT-CHF) we compared KCCQ and EQ-5D at baseline and after 9 months in 1276 men and 373 women with new-onset or worsening symptoms of HFrEF, who were sub-optimally treated and in whom there was an anticipated up-titration of guideline-derived medical therapies. Women had significantly worse baseline QoL (median) as compared with men, both when assessed with KCCQ overall score (KCCQ-OS, 44 vs. 53, P < 0.001) and EQ-5D utility score (0.62 vs. 0.73, P < 0.001). QoL improved equally in women and men at follow-up. All summary measures of QoL were independently associated with all-cause mortality, with KCCQ-OS showing the most remarkable association with mortality up to 1 year compared to the EQ-5D scores (C-statistic 0.650 for KCCQ-OS vs. 0.633 and 0.599 for EQ-5D utility score and EQ-5D visual analogue scale, respectively). QoL was associated with all outcomes analysed, both in men and women (all P for interaction with sex >0.2).

Conclusion: Amongst patients with HFrEF, women reported significantly worse QoL than men. QoL was independently associated with subsequent outcome, similarly in men and women. The KCCQ in general, and the KCCQ-OS in particular, showed the strongest independent association with outcome.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)567-577
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Journal of Heart Failure
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr-2021


  • Heart failure
  • Outcome
  • Quality of life
  • Sex
  • Women

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