Quantitative Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography Measurements Provide a Precise Diagnosis of Fractures of the Mandibular Condylar Process

Enkh-Orchlon Batbayar*, Nick Assink, Joep Kraeima, Anne M.L. Meesters, Ruud R.M. Bos, Arjan Vissink, Max J.H. Witjes, Baucke van Minnen

*Corresponding author for this work

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As 2D quantitative measurements are often insufficient, a standardized 3D quantitative measurement method was developed to analyze mandibular condylar fractures, and correlate the results with the mandibular condylar fracture classifications of Loukota and Spiessl and Schroll and clinical parameters. Thirty-two patients with a unilateral mandibular condylar fracture were evaluated using OPT, 2D (CB)CT images, and 3D imaging to measure the extent of the fractures. The maximum mouth opening (MMO) was measured. Ramus height loss could be measured only in OPT, but not in 2D CT images. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient was excellent in the 3D measurements. In the Loukota classification, condylar neck fractures had the largest median 3D displacement and the highest rotations of the fracture fragments. The largest fracture volume was observed in base fractures. According to the Spiessl and Schroll classification, type V fractures had the largest median 3D displacement and the highest rotation in the X-axis and Z-axis. Type I fractures had the largest fracture volume. We found a moderate negative correlation between MMO and 3D displacement and rotation on Z-axis. The 2D quantitative analysis of condylar fractures is limited, imprecise, and not reproducible, while quantitative 3D measurements provide extensive, precise, objective, and reproducible information.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1225
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of personalized medicine
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug-2022


  • classification
  • diagnoses
  • mandibular condyle
  • mandibular fractures
  • three-dimensional imaging

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