Reliability and validity of handheld structured light scanners and a static stereophotogrammetry system in facial three-dimensional surface imaging

J. A.M. Schipper*, B. J. Merema, M. H.J. Hollander, F. K.L. Spijkervet, P. U. Dijkstra, J. Jansma, R. H. Schepers, J. Kraeima

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
14 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Several new systems for three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging of the face have become available to assess changes following orthognathic or facial surgery. Before they can be implemented in practice, their reliability and validity must be established. Our aim, therefore, was to study the intra- and inter-system reliability and validity of 3dMD (stereophotogrammetry), Artec Eva and Artec Space Spider (both structured light scanners). Intra- and inter-system reliability, expressed in root mean square distance, was determined by scanning a mannequin’s head and the faces of healthy volunteers multiple times. Validity was determined by comparing the linear measurements of the scans with the known distances of a 3D printed model. Post-processing errors were also calculated. Intra-system reliability after scanning the mannequin’s head was best with the Artec Space Spider (0.04 mm Spider; 0.07 mm 3dMD; 0.08 mm Eva). The least difference in inter-system reliability after scanning the mannequin’s head was between the Artec Space Spider and Artec Eva. The best intra-system reliability after scanning human subjects was with the Artec Space Spider (0.15 mm Spider; 0.20 mm Eva; 0.23 mm 3dMD). The least difference in inter-system reliability after scanning human subjects was between the Artec Eva and Artec Space Spider. The most accurate linear measurement validity occurred with the Artec Space Spider. The post-processing error was 0.01 mm for all the systems. The Artec Space Spider is the most reliable and valid scanning system.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8172
Number of pages10
JournalScientific Reports
Volume14
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec-2024

Keywords

  • Humans
  • Face/diagnostic imaging
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Photogrammetry
  • Healthy Volunteers

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