Representation of Disasters in School Textbooks for Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Iran: A qualitative Content Analysis

Hamed Seddighi*, Homeira Sajjadi, Sepideh Yousefzadeh Faal Daghati, Monica Lopez Lopez, Meroe Vemeghi, Hassan Rafiey, Hamidreza Khankeh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
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School textbooks are one of the main sources for teaching and learning in an education system. This study aims to investigate the representation of disasters in school textbooks for the children with intellectual disabilities (ID) in the education system in Iran.

This study uses a qualitative content analysis method. All school textbooks for students with ID in the education year 2019-2020 in Iran were collected. Among the whole 164 textbooks, 18 had content about hazards. Data were analyzed qualitatively by MAXQDA 2018 software.

Textbooks in most grades cover the topic of disasters triggered by natural hazards including geophysical (earthquakes), hydrological (floods), climatological (extreme temperatures, and drought), meteorological (storms/wave surges) and biological (epidemics and insect/animal plagues). Moreover, there are various topics of disaster risk management in the textbooks including mitigation, preparedness, and response.

Natural hazards are well covered in school textbooks for students with ID in Iran. However, more content about sheltering in disasters, reunification, as well as disasters’ response and recovery will help children with ID in Iran to perform better during and after disasters. Moreover, the textbooks in several grades provide some debates on the prevention and the spread of infectious diseases for preparedness against epidemics. The COVID-19 pandemic and the significance of preparedness of vulnerable groups against pandemics evidence that school textbooks are a key means to transfer the information of preparedness in emergencies of all sorts to all children including children with ID.
Original languageEnglish
Article number101987
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction
Publication statusPublished - 1-Feb-2021


  • Textbook Analysis
  • Iran
  • Intellectual Disability
  • Children
  • Natural Hazard
  • Disaster Preparedness

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