Reproducibility of the lung anatomy under active breathing coordinator control: Dosimetric consequences for scanned proton treatments

Lydia A. den Otter*, Evangelia Kaza, Roel G. J. Kierkels, Arturs Meijers, Fred J. F. Ubbels, Martin O. Leach, David J. Collins, Johannes A. Langendijk, Antje-Christin Knopf

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Purpose The treatment of moving targets with scanned proton beams is challenging. For motion mitigation, an Active Breathing Coordinator (ABC) can be used to assist breath-holding. The delivery of pencil beam scanning fields often exceeds feasible breath-hold durations, requiring high breath-hold reproducibility. We evaluated the robustness of scanned proton therapy against anatomical uncertainties when treating nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients during ABC controlled breath-hold. Methods Four subsequent MRIs of five healthy volunteers (3 male, 2 female, age: 25-58, BMI: 19-29) were acquired under ABC controlled breath-hold during two simulated treatment fractions, providing both intrafractional and interfractional information about breath-hold reproducibility. Deformation vector fields between these MRIs were used to deform CTs of five NSCLC patients. Per patient, four or five cases with different tumor locations were modeled, simulating a total of 23 NSCLC patients. Robustly optimized (3 and 5 mm setup uncertainty respectively and 3% density perturbation) intensity-modulated proton plans (IMPT) were created and split into subplans of 20 s duration (assumed breath-hold duration). A fully fractionated treatment was recalculated on the deformed CTs. For each treatment fraction the deformed CTs representing multiple breath-hold geometries were alternated to simulate repeated ABC breath-holding during irradiation. Also a worst-case scenario was simulated by recalculating the complete treatment plan on the deformed CT scan showing the largest deviation with the first deformed CT scan, introducing a systematic error. Both the fractionated breath-hold scenario and worst-case scenario were dosimetrically evaluated. Results Looking at the deformation vector fields between the MRIs of the volunteers, up to 8 mm median intra- and interfraction displacements (without outliers) were found for all lung segments. The dosimetric evaluation showed a median difference in D-98% between the planned and breath-hold scenarios of -0.1 Gy (range: -4.1 Gy to 2.0 Gy). D-98% target coverage was more than 57.0 Gy for 22/23 cases. The D-1 cc of the CTV increased for 21/23 simulations, with a median difference of 0.9 Gy (range: -0.3 to 4.6 Gy). For 14/23 simulations the increment was beyond the allowed maximum dose of 63.0 Gy, though remained under 66.0 Gy (110% of the prescribed dose of 60.0 Gy). Organs at risk doses differed little compared to the planned doses (difference in mean doses

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5525-5534
Number of pages10
JournalMedical Physics
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec-2018


  • active breathing coordinator control
  • interfraction reproducibility
  • intrafraction reproducibility
  • nonsmall-cell lung cancer
  • pencil beam scanning
  • ABC

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