OBJECTIVE: Progressive autonomous task performance is the cornerstone of teaching residents in the operating room, where they are entrusted with autonomy when they meet their supervisors' preferences. To optimize the teaching, supervisors need to be aware of how residents experience parts of the procedure. This study provides insight into how supervisors and residents perceive different tasks of a single surgical procedure.
DESIGN: In this qualitative survey study a cognitive task analysis (CTA) of supervisors and residents for the 47 tasks of an uncemented total hip arthroplasty was executed. Both groups rated the level of attention they would assign to each task and were asked to explain attention scores of 4 or 5.
SETTING: University Medical Centre Groningen (the Netherlands) and its 5 affiliated teaching hospitals.
PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen supervising surgeons and 21 residents.
RESULTS: Normal attention (median attention score 3) was assigned by supervisors to 34 tasks (72.3%) and by residents to 35 tasks (74.5 %). Supervisors rated 12 tasks (25.6%) and residents 9 tasks (19.1%) with a median attention score of 4. In general, supervisors associated high attention with patient outcome and prevention of complications, while residents associated high attention with "effort."
CONCLUSIONS: Supervisors and residents assigned attention to tasks for different reasons. Supervisors think ahead and emphasize patient outcome and prevention of complications when they indicate high attention, while residents think in the "now" and raise attention to execute the tasks themselves. The results of this study allow residents and supervisors to anticipate preferences: residents are able to appreciate why supervisors increase attention to specific tasks, and supervisors obtain information on which tasks require individual guidance of residents. This information can contribute to improve the learning climate in the operating room and task-specific procedural training. ((C) 2020 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of Association of Program Directors in Surgery.)
- Faculty development
- Intraprocedural variation
- Surgical education
- Workplace-based learning and teaching