Results of a Cohort Model Analysis of the Cost-Effectiveness of Routine Immunization With 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine of Those Aged >= 65 Years in the Netherlands

Mark H. Rozenbaum*, Eelko Hak, Tjip S. van der Werf, Maarten J. Postma

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    46 Citations (Scopus)


    Background: Community-acquired pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease are common among older people (ie, those aged >= 65 years). A new 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) is under study in the Netherlands.

    Objective: The aim of this work was to model the cost-effectiveness of PCV-13 vaccination among those aged >= 65 years in the Netherlands, both in the total population and in those at increased risk for pneumonia, for various levels of efficacy (30%-90%) assumed.

    Methods: Our previously published cost-effectiveness model was updated to include age-specific epidemiologic data and health-care utilization and costs for a hypothetical cohort of adults aged >= 65 years in the Netherlands. This cohort was followed twice-once as unvaccinated and once as vaccinated-over a time period of 5 years, with differences between both analyses reported. Outcome measures included costs, life-years gained (LYGs), quality-adjusted life-years, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). All analyses were performed from a societal perspective.

    Results: In the model, the ICER for vaccination remained below (sic)80,000/LYG, except when the vaccine was assumed to protect only against bacteremic pneumonia, with a relatively low effectiveness (40%) in combination with a high vaccine price ((sic)65), and indirect effects of serotype replacement would largely offset the direct effect of vaccination. For various assumptions, introduction of widespread PCV-13 vaccination (assuming a 60% efficacy against invasive and noninvasive disease because of vaccine serotypes, and a cost of (sic)50 per vaccinated person) was associated with the ICERs varying from cost-saving to (sic)50,676/LYG.

    Conclusions: In this model analysis of a hypothetical cohort in the Netherlands, vaccination with PCV-13 might be considered cost-effective, both for the total population and for the high-risk population aged >= 65 years, from a societal perspective, over a 5-year time horizon. The main limitation of this study was uncertainty regarding how great a proportion of pneumonia could be attributed to pneumococcal disease. (Clin Ther. 2010;32:1517-1532) (C) 2010 Excerpta Medica Inc.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1517-1532
    Number of pages16
    JournalClinical Therapeutics
    Issue number8
    Publication statusPublished - Aug-2010


    • 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine
    • community-acquired pneumonia
    • cost-effectiveness
    • elderly
    • invasive pneumococcal disease
    • vaccination

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