INTRODUCTION: Cognitive deficits are frequently found after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), but their influence on return to work is largely unknown. To improve identification of those patients at-risk for long-term return to work problems, we aimed to examine the value of cognitive deficits in the prediction of long-term return to work after subarachnoid hemorrhage.
METHODS: SAH patients (N = 71) who were employed before SAH and were able to undergo neuropsychological assessment, were included. Demographic characteristics and acute SAH-related variables (SAH-type and external cerebrospinal fluid drainage) were taken into account. Neuropsychological tests for memory, speed, attention, executive function, and emotion recognition and a questionnaire for executive functions were used. Return to work was assessed using the Role Resumption List.
RESULTS: Results showed that patients with incomplete return to work had significantly lower scores on neuropsychological measures for complex attention and executive functions (p < 0.05) compared to patients with complete return to work. Return to work could not be significantly predicted using only demographic characteristics and acute SAH-related variables, but adding measures of complex attention and executive functions resulted in a prognostic model that could reliably distinguish between complete and incomplete return to work. Statistically significant predictors in the final model were cerebrospinal fluid drainage and scores on a questionnaire for executive functions: patients with cerebrospinal fluid drainage and higher scores on the a questionnaire for executive functions were less likely to return to work.
DISCUSSION: Together, these findings show that neuropsychological measures, especially for complex attention and executive functions, have added value to acute SAH-related and demographic variables in the prediction of long-term return to work after SAH.
- TRAUMATIC BRAIN-INJURY
- LONG-TERM OUTCOMES