AIM: To perform a scoping literature review of associations between risk factors in early life and developmental coordination disorder (DCD).
METHOD: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Web of Science (January 1994-March 2019) were searched to identify studies on early risk factors and motor impairment or DCD. The effect of single and multiple risk factors was assessed. Level of evidence was evaluated following the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine guidelines. Meta-analysis on the effect of preterm birth was performed.
RESULTS: Thirty-six studies fulfilled inclusion criteria; 35 had evidence level 3, one had level 4. Highest evidence was available that preterm birth and male sex in term-born children were associated with DCD. The odds ratio of preterm birth was 2.02 (95% confidence interval: 1.43-2.85). Low to moderate evidence was available that parental subfertility, maternal smoking during pregnancy, postnatal corticosteroid treatment in infants born preterm, extra corporeal membrane oxygenation, retinopathy of prematurity, abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging scans at term age, and accumulating perinatal or neonatal risk factors were associated with motor impairment.
INTERPRETATION: Limited information on early risk factors of DCD is available. Only preterm birth and male sex were consistently associated with an increased risk of DCD.
- MINOR NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION
- SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN
- MOTOR IMPAIRMENT
- PRETERM CHILDREN
- PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES