Accurate mandible segmentation is significant in the field of maxillofacial surgery to guide clinical diagnosis and treatment and develop appropriate surgical plans. In particular, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images with metal parts, such as those used in oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS), often have susceptibilities when metal artifacts are present such as weak and blurred boundaries caused by a high-attenuation material and a low radiation dose in image acquisition. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a novel deep learning-based approach (SASeg) for automated mandible segmentation that perceives overall mandible anatomical knowledge. SASeg utilizes a prior shape feature extractor (PSFE) module based on a mean mandible shape, and recurrent connections maintain the continuity structure of the mandible. The effectiveness of the proposed network is substantiated on a dental CBCT dataset from orthodontic treatment containing 59 patients. The experiments show that the proposed SASeg can be easily used to improve the prediction accuracy in a dental CBCT dataset corrupted by metal artifacts. In addition, the experimental results on the PDDCA dataset demonstrate that, compared with the state-of-the-art mandible segmentation models, our proposed SASeg can achieve better segmentation performance.