Role of Neuroglia in the Habenular Connection Hub of the Dorsal Diencephalic Conduction System

Anton Loonen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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Astrocytes and microglia play important roles in organizing the structure and function of neuronal networks in the central nervous system (CNS). The dorsal diencephalic connection system (DDCS) is a phylogenetically ancient regulatory system by which the forebrain influences the activity of cholinergic and ascending monoaminergic pathways in the midbrain. The DDCS is probably important in inducing aspects of mental disorders, such as depression and addiction. The habenula is the small but highly complex connecting center of the DDCS in the epithalamus that consists of a medial (MHb) and lateral (LHb) division. MHb and LHb are built differently and connect different brain structures. Studies in animal models and human biomarker research provide good evidence that astroglia and microglia also affect the symptoms of mental disorders (such as depression). The
significance of these neuroglia in habenular neurotransmission has not been extensively studied. This review article provides arguments for doing so more thoroughly.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberneuroglia4010004
Pages (from-to)34-51
Number of pages18
Publication statusPublished - 26-Feb-2023


  • astrocyte
  • microglia
  • habenula
  • mood disorders
  • anxiety disorders
  • addiction
  • schizophrenia
  • Metabolic syndrome


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