Background: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may induce systemic inflammation and vascular dysfunction. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) modulates various vascular and immune responses. Here we explored whether agonists of the S1P receptors, FTY720 and SEW2871 improve vascular reactivity after CPB in the rat.
Methods: Experiments were done in male Wistar rats (total n = 127). Anesthesia was induced by isoflurane (2.5-3%) and maintained by fentanyl and midazolam during CPB. After catheterization of the left femoral artery, carotid artery and the right atrium, normothermic extracorporeal circulation was instituted for 60 minutes. In the first part of the study animals were euthanized after either 1 hour, 1 day, 2 or 5 days of the recovery period. In second part of the study animals were euthanized after 1 day of postoperative period. We evaluated the contractile response to phenylephrine (mesenteric arteries) or to serotonin (coronary artery) and vasodilatory response to acethylcholine (both arteries).
Results: Contractile responses to phenylephrine were reduced at 1 day recovery after CPB and Sham as compared to healthy control animals (Emax, mN: 7.9 +/- 1.9, 6.5 +/- 1.5, and 11.3 +/- 1.3, respectively). Mainly FTY720, but not SEW2871, caused lymphopenia in both Sham and CPB groups. In coronary and mesenteric arteries, both FTY720 and SEW2871 normalized serotonin and phenylephrine-mediated vascular reactivity after CPB (p
Conclusion: Pretreatment with FTY720 or SEW2871 preserves vascular function in mesenteric and coronary artery after CPB. Therefore, pharmacological activation of S1P(1) receptors may provide a promising therapeutic intervention to prevent CPB-related vascular dysfunction in patients.
- ISCHEMIA-REPERFUSION INJURY
- LONG-TERM SURVIVAL
- SPHINGOSINE 1-PHOSPHATE RECEPTOR-1
- COMPLETE RENAL ISCHEMIA
- CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS
- MICROVASCULAR REACTIVITY
- ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION
- INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE
- BARRIER ENHANCEMENT
- FTY720 FINGOLIMOD