Sarcopenia augments the risk of excess weight on COVID-19 hospitalization: A prospective study using the Lifelines COVID-19 cohort

Lifelines Corona Research initiative, Yinjie Zhu*, Jochen O. Mierau, Stephan J.L. Bakker, Louise H. Dekker, Gerjan J. Navis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Objective: We investigated the associations of sarcopenia alone, overweight or obesity, and sarcopenic overweight or obesity with COVID-19 hospitalization. 

Methods: Participants from the Lifelines COVID-19 cohort who were infected with COVID-19 were included in this study. Sarcopenia was defined as a relative deviation of muscle mass of ≤ –1.0 SD from the sex-specific mean 24-h urinary creatinine excretion. Overweight or obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2. Sarcopenic overweight or obesity was defined as the presence of overweight or obesity and low muscle mass. COVID-19 hospitalization was self-reported. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the associations of sarcopenia alone, overweight or obesity, and sarcopenic overweight or obesity with COVID-19 hospitalization. 

Results: Of the 3594 participants infected with COVID-19 and recruited in this study, 173 had been admitted to the hospital. Compared with the reference group, individuals with overweight or obesity and sarcopenic overweight or obesity were 1.78-times and 2.09-times more likely to have been hospitalized for COVID-19, respectively, whereas sarcopenia alone did not increase the risk of COVID-19 hospitalization. 

Conclusions: In this middle-aged population, sarcopenic overweight or obesity elevated the risk of hospitalization for COVID-19 in those infected with COVID-19 more than overweight or obesity alone. These data support the relevance of sarcopenic overweight or obesity as a risk factor beyond the geriatric setting and should be considered in risk stratification in future public health and vaccination campaigns.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112361
Number of pages6
JournalNutrition
Volume121
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May-2024

Keywords

  • Coronavirus disease
  • Creatinine excretion
  • Muscle mass
  • Obesity
  • Overweight
  • Sarcopenia

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