Seasonal human coronaviruses respiratory tract infection in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Infectious Diseases Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation and Infectious Complications Subcommittee of the Spanish Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation and Cell Therapy Group (GETH), Jose Luis Piñana, Aliénor Xhaard, Gloria Tridello, Jakob Passweg, Anne Kozijn, Nicola Polverelli, Inmaculada Heras, Ariadna Perez, Jaime Sanz, Dagmar Berghuis, Lourdes Vázquez, María Suárez-Lledó, Maija Itäla-Remes, Tulay Ozcelik, Isabel Iturrate Basarán, Musa Karakukcu, Mohsen Al Zahrani, Goda Choi, Marián Angeles Cuesta CasasMontserrat Batlle Massana, Amato Viviana, Nicole Blijlevens, Arnold Ganser, Baris Kuskonmaz, Hélène Labussière-Wallet, Peter J Shaw, Zeynep Arzu Yegin, Marta González-Vicent, Vanderson Rocha, Alina Ferster, Nina Knelange, David Navarro, Malgorzata Mikulska, Rafael de la Camara, Jan Styczynski

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    BACKGROUND: Little is known about characteristics of seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) (NL63, 229E, OC43 and HKU1) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT).

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: this is a collaborative Spanish and European bone marrow transplantation groups retrospective multicentre study, which included allo-HCT recipients (adults and children) with upper and/or lower respiratory tract disease (U/LRTD) caused by seasonal HCoV diagnosed through multiplex PCR assays from January 2012 to January 2019.

    RESULTS: We included 402 allo-HCT recipients who developed 449 HCoV U/LRTD episodes. Median age of recipients was 46 years (range 0.3-73.8 years). HCoV episodes were diagnosed at a median of 222 days after transplantation. The most common HCoV subtype was OC43 (n=170, 38%). LRTD involvement occurred in 121 episodes (27%). HCoV infection frequently required hospitalization (18%), oxygen administration (13%) and intensive care unit (ICU) admission (3%). Three-month overall mortality after HCoV detection was 7% in the whole cohort and 16% in those with LRTD. We identified 3 conditions associated with higher mortality in recipients with LRTD: absolute lymphocyte count <0.1 x10 9/mL [hazard ratio (HR), 10.8], corticosteroid (HR 4.68) and ICU admission (HR 8.22) (p<0.01).

    CONCLUSIONS: Seasonal HCoV after allo-HCT may involve the LRTD in many instances, leading to a significant morbidity.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1564-1575
    Number of pages10
    JournalThe Journal of Infectious Diseases
    Issue number9
    Early online date29-Aug-2020
    Publication statusPublished - May-2021

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