Secondary negative symptoms - A review of mechanisms, assessment and treatment

Matthias Kirschner*, Andre Aleman, Stefan Kaiser

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

72 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Negative symptoms in schizophrenia may be classified as primary or secondary. Primary negative symptoms are thought to be intrinsic to schizophrenia, while secondary negative symptoms are caused by positive symptoms, depression, medication side-effects, social deprivation or substance abuse. Most of the research on secondary negative symptoms has aimed at ruling them out in order to isolate primary negative symptoms. However, secondary negative symptoms are common and can have a major impact on patient-relevant outcomes. Therefore, the assessment and treatment of secondary negative symptoms are clinically relevant. Furthermore, understanding the mechanisms underlying secondary negative symptoms can contribute to an integrated model of negative symptoms. In this review we provide an overview of concepts, evidence, assessment and treatment for the major causes of secondary negative symptoms. We also summarize neuroimaging research relevant to secondary negative symptoms. We emphasize the relevance of recent developments in psychopathological assessment of negative symptoms, such as the distinction between a motivation and diminished expression, which have only rarely been applied in research on secondary negative symptoms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)29-38
Number of pages10
JournalSchizophrenia Research
Volume186
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug-2017

Keywords

  • Negative symptoms
  • Schizophrenia
  • Psychosis
  • Depression
  • Antipsychotic medication
  • Social deprivation
  • PSYCHIATRY WFSBP GUIDELINES
  • VENTRAL STRIATAL ACTIVATION
  • CALGARY DEPRESSION SCALE
  • SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS
  • BRAIN REWARD SYSTEM
  • SCHIZOPHRENIC-PATIENTS
  • DOUBLE-BLIND
  • BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT
  • HEALTHY-VOLUNTEERS
  • WORLD FEDERATION

Cite this