Selective Colorimetric “Turn-On” Probe for Efficient Engineering of Iminium Biocatalysis

Lieuwe Biewenga, Michele Crotti, Mohammad Saifuddin, Gerrit J. Poelarends*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

The efficient engineering of iminium biocatalysis has drawn considerable attention, with many applications in pharmaceutical synthesis. Here, we report a tailor-made iminium-activated colorimetric "turn-on" probe, specifically designed as a prescreening tool to facilitate engineering of iminium biocatalysis. Upon complexation of the probe with the catalytic Pro-1 residue of the model enzyme 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT), a brightly colored merocyanine-dye-type structure is formed. 4-OT mutants that formed this brightly colored species upon incubation with the probe proved to have a substantial activity for the iminium-based Michael-type addition of nitromethane to cinnamaldehyde, whereas mutants that showed no staining by the probe exhibited no or very low-level "Michaelase" activity. This system was exploited in a solid-phase prescreening assay termed as activated iminium colony staining (AICS) to enrich libraries for active mutants. AICS prescreening reduced the screening effort up to 20-fold. After two rounds of directed evolution, two artificial Michaelases were identified with up to 39-fold improvement in the activity for the addition of nitromethane to cinnamaldehyde, yielding the target γ-nitroaldehyde product with excellent isolated yield (up to 95%) and enantiopurity (up to >99% ee). The colorimetric activation of the turn-on probe could be extended to the class I aldolase 2-deoxy-d-ribose 5-phosphate aldolase, implicating a broader application of AICS in engineering iminium biocatalysis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2397-2405
Number of pages9
JournalACS Omega
Volume5
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

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