Nowadays, the self-healing approach in materials science mainly relies on functionalized polymers used as matrices in nanocomposites. Through different physicochemical pathways and stimuli, these materials can undergo self-repairing mechanisms that represent a great advantage to prolonging materials service-life, thus avoiding early disposal. Particularly, the use of the Joule effect as an external stimulus for self-healing in conductive nanocomposites is under-reported in the literature. However, it is of particular importance because it incorporates nanofillers with tunable features thus producing multifunctional materials. The aim of this review is the comprehensive analysis of conductive polymer nanocomposites presenting reversible dynamic bonds and their energetical activation to perform self-healing through the Joule effect.