Crohn’s disease (CD) is a relapsing-remitting inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract characterized by increased extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. The introduction of the α4β7-integrin inhibitor vedolizumab (VEDO) has improved disease management, although there is a high rate of primary non-response in patients with CD. We studied whether ECM biomarkers of neutrophil activity and mucosal damage could predict long-term response to VEDO in patients with CD. Serum levels of human neutrophil elastase (HNE)-derived fragments of calprotectin (CPa9-HNE), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-derived fragments of type I (C1M), III (C3M), IV (C4M), and VI (C6Ma3) collagen, type III collagen formation (PRO-C3), basement membrane turnover (PRO-C4) and T-cell activity (C4G), were measured using protein fingerprint assays in patients with CD (n = 32) before VEDO therapy. Long-term response was defined as VEDO treatment of at least 12 months. CPa9-HNE was significantly increased at baseline in non-responders compared with responders (p < 0.05). C1M, C3M, C4M, C6Ma3, and PRO-C4 were also significantly increased at baseline in non-responders compared with responders (all p < 0.05). All biomarkers were associated with response to VEDO (all p < 0.05). To conclude, baseline levels of serum biomarkers for neutrophil activity and mucosal damage are linked to the pathology of CD, and are associated with long-term use of VEDO in patients with CD. Therefore, these biomarkers warrant further validation and could aid in therapeutic decision-making concerning vedolizumab therapy.